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High-Temperature Heat Exchanger Testing in a Pilot-Scale Slagging Furnace System, Final Topical Report - 1999

Michael E. Collings
Bruce A. Dockter
Douglas R. Hajicek
Ann K. Henderson
John P. Hurley
Patty L. Kleven
Greg F. Weber

Energy & Environmental Research Center

Table of Contents (53.1kb)

LIST OF FIGURES

v

LIST OF TABLES

x

GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

xi

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

xiv

1.0

INTRODUCTION (11.9kb)

1

2.0

EXPERIMENTAL A

PROACH (1.3MB)

2

  2.1 Scope of Work

2

  2.1.1 Task 1 - Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Performance in the SFS

2

2.1.2 Task 2 - Bench-Scale Testing of Methods to Reduce Slag Corrosion

4

2.2 Description of Pilot-Scale SFS

5

  2.2.1 Fuel Feed System

8

2.2.2 Slagging Furnace

10

2.2.3 Radiant Air Heater Panels

14

2.2.4 Slag Screen

15

2.2.5 Dilution/Quench Zone

17

2.2.6 Convective Air Heater

17

2.2.7 Process Air Preheaters

18

2.2.8 Slagging Furnace System Heat Exchangers

19

2.2.9 System Fans

20

2.2.10 Emission Control

20

2.2.11 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition

22

2.3

Dynamic Slag Application Furnace

22

3.0

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (Part 1 - 2.24MB) (Part 2 - 5.89MB)

23

 

3.1

Pilot-Scale Testing

23

  3.1.1 Pilot-Scale SFS Performance

23

3.1.2 CAH Tube Bank Performance

57

3.1.3 RAH Panel Performance

71

3.2

Laboratory and Bench-Scale Activities

89

  3.2.1 Dynamic Slag Corrosion Testing

89

3.2.2 Effect of Additives on Slag Viscosity

95

3.2.3 Heated-Stage XRD Analysis of Slags

98

4.0

CONCLUSIONS AND OBSERVATIONS (103 kb)

101

  4.1 Fuel Characteristics

101

4.2 SFS Performance

102

4.3 CAH Performance

103

4.4 RAH Performance

104

4.5 Bench and Laboratory Corrosion Testing

105

5.0

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK (14.7kb)

106

 

LIST OF FIGURES

2-1

Photograph of the pilot-scale slagging furnace system

6

2-2

Combustion 2000 slagging furnace and support systems

7

2-3

Illustration of the uncooled tubes in the CAH tube bank

18

2-4

Schematic of the DSAF

22

3-1

Coal feed rate versus run time for the January 1999 test, SFS-RH6-0199

24

3-2

Coal feed rate versus run time for the February 1999 test, SFS-RH7-0299

25

3-3

Coal feed rate versus run time for the April 1999 test, SFS-RH8-0399

25

3-4

Furnace and slag screen temperatures versus run time for the January 1999 test, SFS-RH6-0199

30

3-5

Slagging furnace firing rate versus run time for the January 1999 test, SFS-RH6-0199

31

3-6

Furnace and slag screen temperatures versus run time for the February 1999 test, SFS-RH7-0299

33

3-7

Slagging furnace firing rate versus run time for the February 1999 test, SFS-RH7-0299

34

3-8

Furnace and slag screen temperatures versus run time for the April 1999 test, SFS-RH8-0399

35

3-9

Slagging furnace firing rate versus run time for the April 1999 test, SFS-RH8-0399

36

3-10

Photograph of slag screen tubes following the January test

38

3-11

Photograph of slag screen tubes following the February test

39

3-12

Slag screen differential pressure versus run time for the April 1999 test, SFS-RH8-0399

43

3-13

Photograph of slag screen tubes following the April test

45

3-14

Process air preheater temperatures versus run time for the January test, SFS-RH6-0199

46

3-15

Process air preheater temperatures versus run time for the February test, SFS-RH7-0299

47

3-16

Process air preheater temperatures versus run time for the April test, SFS-RH8-0399

47

3-17

Respirable mass emission data for the January (top) and February (bottom) tests

52

3-18

Respirable mass emission data for the April test

53

3-19

Baghouse hopper ash particle-size data

53

3-20

Multicyclone data resulting from baghouse inlet sampling

54

3-21

Baghouse differential pressure versus run time for the April test

55

3-22

CAH tube surface and flue gas temperatures versus run time for the January test, SFS-RH6-0199

57

3-23

CAH process air temperatures versus run time for the January test, SFS-RH6-0199

58

3-24

CAH process air, RAH process air, quench gas, and flue gas flow rates versus run time for the January test, SFS-RH6-0199

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3-25

Thermocouple locations in the CAH tube bank

59

3-26

CAH heat recovery versus run time for the January test, SFS-RH6-0199

61

3-27

Photograph of ash deposits on the CAH tubes following the January test firing Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal

62

3-28

CAH tube surface and flue gas temperatures versus run time for the February test, SFS-RH7-0299

63

3-29

CAH process air temperatures versus run time for the February test, SFS-RH7-0299

63

3-30

CAH process air, RAH process air, quench gas, and flue gas flow rates versus run time for the February test, SFS-RH7-0299

64

3-31

CAH heat recovery versus run time for the February test, SFS-RH7-0299

64

3-32

Photograph of ash deposits on the CAH tubes following the February test firing eastern Kentucky bituminous coal

66

3-33

CAH tube surface and flue gas temperatures versus run time for the April test, SFS-RH8-0399

67

3-34

CAH process air temperatures versus run time for the April test, SFS-RH8-0399

68

3-35

CAH process air, RAH process air, quench gas, and flue gas flow rates versus run time for the April test, SFS-RH8-0399

68

3-36

CAH heat recovery versus run time for the April test, SFS-RH8-0399

69

3-37

Photograph of ash deposits on the CAH tubes following the April test firing eastern Kentucky and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal

70

3-38

Photograph of new ceramic tiles installed on the RAH panel inside of the slagging furnace in January 1999

72

3-39

Photographs of the RAH panel inside of the slagging furnace following the January (top) and February (bottom) tests

73

3-40

Photograph of the RAH panel inside of the slagging furnace following the April test

74

3-41

Illustrations of cracks found in the ceramic tiles/bricks of the RAH panel after testing in January (left) and February (right) 1999

74

3-42

Illustration of cracks found in the ceramic tiles/bricks of the RAH panel after testing in April 1999

75

3-43

Photograph of the RAH lower support brick, small lower tile, and the lower edge of the large lower tile following the February test

76

3-44

Photograph of the RAH panel from inside of the furnace following the April test

77

3-45

RAH ceramic tile temperatures versus run time for the January test, SFS-RH6-0199

77

3-46

RAH tube surface temperatures versus run time for the January test, SFS-RH6-0199

78

3-47

RAH process air temperatures versus run time for the January test, SFS-RH6-0199

78

3-48

Thermocouple locations in the RAH panel

79

3-49

RAH heat recovery versus run time for the January test, SFS-RH6-0199

81

3-50

RAH ceramic tile temperatures versus run time for the February test, SFS-RH7-0299

82

3-51

RAH tube surface temperatures versus run time for the February test, SFS-RH7-0299

83

3-52

RAH process air temperatures versus run time for the February tst, SFS-RH7-0299

84

3-53

RAH heat recovery versus run time for the February test, SFS-RH7-0299

84

3-54

RAH ceramic tile temperatures versus run time for the April test, SFS-RH8-0399

85

3-55

RAH tube surface temperatures versus run time for the April test, SFS-RH8-0399

86

3-56

RAH process air temperatures versus run time for the April test, SFS-RH8-0399

86

3-57

RAH heat recovery versus run time for the April test, SFS-Rh8-0399

87

3-58

RAH heat recovery for bituminous coal-fired tests completed in 1998 and 1999

88

3-59

Graph of recession with time for the sintered chrome - alumina refractory and the alumina-based fusion-cast Monofrax L and M, tested with Illinois No. 6 slag at 2732F (1500C)

90

3-60

Photograph of the chrome-alumina block from UTRC after 103 hours of slag feed at 2732EF (1500EC) using Illinois No. 6 slag

91

3-61

Photograph of the Monofrax after 100 hours of slag feed at 2732F (1500C) using Illinois No. 6 slag

92

3-62

Photograph of the coated Plicast 98 material that was prefired to 2957F (1625C) and tested at 2732F (1500C) for 103 hours using Illinois No. 6

93

3-63

Photograph of uncoated Plicast 98 material that was prefired and tested at 2732F (1500C) for 54 hours using Illinois No. 6 slag

94

3-64

Plot of recession versus time for Plicast 98 castable material with and without corrosion-resistant coatings

95

3-65

Viscosity-versus-temperature curves for two repeat measurements of the Rochelle slag

97

3-66

Viscosity-versus-temperature curves for the original and modified Rochelle slags

98

3-67

Viscosity-versus-temperature curves for the originial and modified CCS lignite slag and modified slags

99

3-68

X-ray diffractograms for the eastern Kentucky slag tap sample measured while heating to the melting point

100

3-69

X-ray diffractograms for the eastern Kentucky slag tap sample measured while cooling from the melting point

101

 

LIST OF TABLES

2-1

Theoretical Flow and Heat-Transfer Data for the Slagging Furnace System

11

2-2

Refractory Properties

13

2-3

Pressure, Temperature, and Flow Specifications for the SFS Fans

20

3-1

Results of Coal and Coal Ash Analysis for Coal-Fired Slagging Furnace Tests

26

3-2

Results of Lignite and Lignite Ashy Analysis for Lignite-Fired Slagging Furnace Tests

27

3-3

February Kentucky Coal Ash, Slag Pot, and Slag Tap Samples

40

3-4

February Kentucky Coal Ash and Slag Screen Samples

40

3-5

April Kentucky Coal Ash and Slag Tap Samples

44

3-6

Flue Gas Emissions for Illinois No. 6 and Kentucky Coal-Fired Slagging Furnace Tests

56

3-7

Description of CAH Thermocouple Locations

60

3-8

CAH Deposit Samples from the February Test

66

3-9

Description of RAH Panel Thermocouple Locations

80

3-10

Illinois No. 6 Slag and Slag Reactant Product Compositions as Determined by WDXRF

93