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Pilot Plant Development of the Hot-Gas-Recycle Process for the Synthesis of High-B.T.U. Gas

D. Bienstock
J. H. Field
A. J. Forney
R. J. Demski

Bureau of Mines

In this pdf format, this document has 56 pages and is 2.68MB

Table of Contents

Summary

1
Introduction 1
Experimental procedure 4
  Description of apparatus 4
  Oxidation 4
Synthesis 4
  Reactor 7
Hot-gas-recycle compressor 7
Sulfur removal 7
Preparation of catalyst 7
  Steel turnings 7
Raney nickel 9
Nickel turnings 9
Synthesis of high - B.T.U. gas 11
Discussion of Results 11
  Single reactor with steel-turning catalyst 11
  Total gas recycle 11
Synthesis-gas composition 11
Cold recycle 18
Pressure drop 19
Alkali impregnation 20
  Product distribution 20
Activity 20
Catalyst composition 21
Single reactor with nickel-turning catalyst 21
Two reactors -- Raney nickel following steel turnings 21
Conclusions 26
 
ILLUSTRATIONS
1

Pressure drops through beds of various catalyst shapes

4
2 Apparatus for oxidation of steel turnings 5
3 Apparatus for oxidation of nickel turnings 5
4 Synthesis of high - B.T.U. gas in the hot-gas-recycle system 6
5 Main reactor, hot-gas-recycle system 8
6 Reactor 2, hot-gas-recycle system 9
7 Recycle compressor, hot-gas-recycle-system 10
8 Composition of product gas as a function of feed gas Composition with a steel catalyst at 300 to 340 C., 4:1 cold recycle-to-fresh gas ratio, and 90 percent conversion 19
9 Cross section of steel-turnings catalyst 22
10 Effect of Raney nickel on product gas composition using a 3H2 + 1CO feed gas with a steel catalyst in main reactor at 300 to 340, and 2:1 cold recycle 24
11 Effect of Raney nickel on product gas composition using a 2.7H2 + 1CO feed gas with a steel catalyst in main reactor at 300 to 340, and 2:1 cold recycle 25
 

TABLES

1 Experiment 18, hot-gas-recycle system 12
2 Experiment 203 hot-gas-recycle system 14
3 Experiment 21, hot-gas-recycle system 16
4 Composition of product gas as a function of fresh feed composition; with a steel catalyst at 300 to 340 C., 4:1 cold recycle-to-fresh feed ratio, and 90-percent conversion, experiment 18, main reactor 18
5 Effect of varying the ratio of cold recycle to fresh gas experiment 183 main reactor 20
6 Effect of alkali impregnation on steel turnings and variation of cold recycle-to-fresh gas ratio on synthesis products 21
7 Composition of product gas obtained with a 2.7H2 + 1CO and 3H2 + 1CO fresh feed using an iron catalyst at 300 to 340 C. followed by Raney nickel at 350 C, experiment 20. 23
8 Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide over Raney nickel, experiment 20 26
9 Composition of Raney nickel catalyst used in second reactor 26