I. C. 7647

Annual Report of Research and Technologic Work on Coal Fiscal Year 1951 - 1952

R. L. Brown1
E. P. Carman2

Cover Page 19kb

Table of Contents 142kb

Section 1
Introduction and summary 1
Acknowledgments 4
Origin, composition, and properties of coal 6
Inspection, sampling, and analysis 6
Analyses of miscellaneous materials 7
Constitution, properties, and analytical methods 8
Coal classification 8
Petrographic studies of coal 8
Extractable waxes from American lignites 9
Methods of analyzing coal and coke 10
Investigation of abrasiveness of coal 10
Section 2
Coal mining 11
Development of the South American coal industry 11
Estimate of coking-coal reserves 12
Cambria County, Pa. 13
Indiana County, Pa. 14
Pike County, Ky. 14
Mining methods and practices 15
Anthracite mechanical mining research 15
Bituminous-coal mining studies 16
Studies on the use of Diesel engines underground 16
Control of coal-mine fires 18
Coal-mine explosions and fires 18
Causes of fatalities in mines 18
Toxic mine atmospheres 19
Electrical equipment for mines 21
Roof control 21
Anthracite flood prevention 22
Preparation of coal 22
Coal washing 22
International conference on coal preparation 22
Section 3
Evaluating coal-washery performance 23
Cleaning and recovery of fine coal 25
Preparation characteristics of coking coal 26
Cambria County, Pa. 26
Indiana County, Pa. 26
Armstrong County, Pa. 26
Float-and-sink control tests 27
Research pilot plant 28
Coal preparation for synthetic fuels 28
Drying low-rank coals 28
Fluidized drying 28
Modified Fleissner process 29
Storage of lignite 29
Utilization of coal and other fuels for combustion 30
Fuel-engineering service 30
Boiler feed-water conditioning 31
Boiler-water research 33
Smoke abatement 34
Coal and energy in the western States 35
Combustion characteristics of packaged fuels 35
Factors affecting heat absorption in furnaces 35
Section 4
Disposal of radioactive wastes by incineration 36
Carbonization of coal 36
Survey of carbonizing properties of American coals 36
West Virginia coals 41
Pennsylvania coals 42
Virginia coals 43
Tennessee coals 43
Washington coals 43
Alabama coals 43
Columbia, South America, coals 43
Comparison of BM-AGA and slot-oven experimental methods of carbonization 44
Small-scale laboratory carbonization tests 44
Plasticity of coals 44
Expanding properties of coals during carbonization 46
Spontaneous heating tendencies of coals and refuse 48
Physical properties of coke:  Size and its measurement 48
Section 5
Methods of making coke 50
Low-temperature carbonization of noncoking coals 50
Desulfurization of coal during carbonization 51
Phenol and cresols in coal tar 51
Gasification of coal and lignite 51
Lurgi process 51
Lignite gasification 52
Underground gasification 52
Research on the production of synthesis gas 55
Gasification of pulverized coal 55
Laboratory-scale experimentation 55
Gasification by the vortex principle 56
Atmospheric pressure pilot-plant gasifier 56
High-pressure pilot-plant gasifier 57
Pneumatic transportation and feeding of pulverized coal 57
Synthesis-gas purification 57
Section 6
Synthetic liquid fuels by gas synthesis:  Research and development 59
Mechanism of the synthesis 59
Studies of catalysts 59
Metallic carbides 59
Analysis of iron catalysts 60
Nitrided iron catalysts 61
Surface area and pore volume studies 61
Pilot-plant developments 62
Oil-circulation processes 62
Slurry-phase operation 62
Fixed and fluidized-bed studies 63
Production of alcohols 64
Oxygen exchange between nitrates and water 64
Synthetic liquid fuels by coal hydrogenation:  Research and development 65
Batch autoclave studies 65
Mechanism of coal hydrogenation 65
Catalysts for coal hydrogenation 66
Pilot-plant construction:  Vapor-phase hydrogenation unit 66
Separation and identification of products of coal hydrogenation 66
X-ray diffraction analysis 66
Studies of phenols in coal-hydrogenation oils 67
Partition studies 67
Organic syntheses 68
Permeation of gases through membranes 69
Section 7
Synthetic liquid fuels demonstration plants 70
Coal-hydrogenation plant 70
Gas-synthesis plant 75
Vertical gasifier 75
Pebble-type steam superheater 76
Kerpely gas producer 76
Gas-purification unit 76
Synthesis reactor and distillation unit 76
Catalyst preparation and reduction 77
Engineering studies and cost estimates 77
Synthetic liquid fuels publications 79
Books 79
Reviews and abstracts 81
Bibliographies 81
Foreign documents 81

1    Coal technology coordinator, Fuels and Explosives Division, Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C.

2    Chemical engineer, Office of Coal Technology Coordinator, Fuels and Explosives Division, Bureau of Mines,                Washington, D. C.