I. C. 7565

Annual Report of Research and Technologic Work on Coal Fiscal Year 1949

Arno C. Fieldner1
Sidney Gottlieb2

Cover Page 518kb

Table of Contents 366kb

Section 1
Introduction 6
Summary 6
Acknowledgments 9
Origin, composition, and properties of coal 10
Inspection, sampling, and analysis 10
Analyses of miscellaneous materials 11
Constitution, properties, and analytical methods 12
Petrographic studies of coal 12
Determination of chlorine in coal 14
Free-swelling index of coal 15
Section 2
Determination of petrographic components in coal by thin-section examination 16
Coal Mining 16
Coal investigations 16
Alaska 16
Coosa Coal Field, Alabama 17
Minnesota Creek Area, Gunnison County, Colo. 18
Castleman Basin, Maryland 19
Deep River Coal Field, North Carolina 19
Coal Creek, Gunnison County, Colo. 19
Study of coking-coal reserves 19
Mining methods and practices 20
The coal industry of Brazil 20
Section 3
Coals of Chile 21
Extraction of pillars with mechanized equipment 21
Coal-mining methods and practices in western Arkansas 22
Slope sinking through water-bearing strata 23
Missouri river Basin coal studies 23
Greek lignite 23
Anthracite mechanical mining research 23
Studies on the use of Diesel engines underground 24
International conference of directors of mine safety research 25
Section 4
Toxic mine atmospheres 26
Electrical equipment for mines 26
Electrical control mechanisms in underground pumping plants 27
Roof control 27
Anthracite flood prevention 28
Preparation of Coal 29
Coal washing 29
Cleaning and recovery of fine coal 29
Coal washery-water clarification 29
Washing characteristics of Chilean coals 29
Coal washing in Washington, Oregon, and Alaska 30
Sampling of coal for float-and-sink tests 31
Upgrading marginal coking coals by coal-preparation methods 32
Production of electrode carbon in Germany 32
Section 5
Briquetting of coal 33
Drying low-rank coal 33
Flash-drying process 33
Drying and utilization of Greek lignites 34
Drying of lignite 35
Storage of coal 36
Storage of low-rank coals 36
Storage of dried lignite 36
Utilization of coal for combustion 36
Fuel-engineering service 36
Boiler feed-water conditioning 38
Boiler-water research 38
Smoke abatement 40
Domestic stoker - and hand-firing of coal; comparison with oil 40
Measurement of the reactivity of solid fuels by the crossing-point method 41
Corrosion of high-pressure steam generators 42
Carbonization of coal 42
Survey of carbonizing properties of American coals 42
Section 6
Methods of testing 45
Low-volatile bituminous coals 52
Medium-volatile bituminous coals 53
Section 7
High-volatile bituminous coals 54
No. 5 block- and Pocahontas No. 6-bed coals 55
Paonia, Colo., coal 56
Beckley-bed coal, Raleigh County, W. Va. 56
Blending tests of Appalachian coals 56
Plasticity of coals 56
Expanding properties 59
New experimental coke oven 62
Oxidizing properties of bituminous coals 62
Section 8
Carbonizing properties of Chilean coals 63
Survey of the coke industry 63
German low-temperature coal-tar industry 63
Gasification of coal and coke 64
Use of oxygen in gas manufacture 64
The Lurgi process of complete gasification 64
Gasification of lignite and subbituminous coal 64
Gasification of lignite for preparation of high-hydrogen water gas 65
Underground gasification 66
Laboratory experimentation 66
Second field-scale experiment at Gorgas, Ala. 66
Section 9
Research on the production of synthesis gas 70
Gasification of pulverized coal 70
Section 10
Vortex combustion studies for powdered coal gasification 73
Production of synthesis gas 73
Gas treating and testing 73
Oxygen production by multistage fractional permeation 74
Liquefaction of coal by direct hydrogenation:  Research and development 74
Function of solvents and catalysts in early stages of coal hydrogenation 76
Action of solvents 76
Bench-scale process development 77
Coal hydrogenation in the absence of solvents 77
Substitution of water gas for hydrogen 78
Pilot-plant operations 78
Liquid-phase hydrogenation 78
Vapor-phase hydrogenation 78
Section 11
Separation and identification of products of coal hydrogenation 79
Liquefaction of coal by hydrogenation of carbon monoxide:  Research and development 82
Reaction mechanism studies 83
Surface areas and densities of iron catalysts 83
Effect of carriers and promoters in cobalt catalysts and role of bulk metal carbides in the synthesis 84
Effect of chloride ion on the activity of iron catalysts 86
Catalyst activity and durability 87
Section 12
Study of fundamental properties of fixed and fluidized beds 88
Heat transfer through fluidized beds 88
Flow through fixed granular beds 89
Flow through fluidized beds 89
Process development, bench scale 89
Process development, pilot-plant operations 91
Separation and identification of products of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide 91
Section 13
Synthetic liquid fuels demonstration plants 92
Coal-hydrogenation plant 92
Section 14
Gas-synthesis plant 94
Engineering studies and cost estimates 95
Technical reports and foreign document work 97
Synthetic liquid fuels abstracts 97
Bibliographies 97
Foreign documents 97

1  Chief, Fuels and Explosives Division, Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C.

2  Assistant to the Chief, Fuels and Explosives Division, Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C.