I. C. 7518

Annual Report of Research and Technologic Work on Coal Fiscal Year 19481 - 1949

A. C. Fieldner2
Sidney Gottlieb 3

Cover Page 658kb

Table of Contents 500kb

Section 1
Introduction 5
Summary 6
Acknowledgments 8
Origin, composition, and properties of coal 10
Inspection, sampling, and analysis 10
Analyses of Michigan, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Texas coals 11
Analyses of miscellaneous materials 11
Section 2
Constitution, properties, and analytical methods 12
Extractable waxes from lignitic and subbituminous coals of the United States 12
Electron-diffraction and electron-microscope studies of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts 12
Electron-microscope studies of a micro-organism occurring in acid mine drainage 14
Petrographic studies of coal 14
Heating-value loss during air drying of coal 17
Determination of moisture in coal 17
Float-and-sink testing of lignite 17
Section 3
Free-swelling index of coal 18
Coal Mining 18
Experimental mine and dust explosions 18
Demonstrations 18
Technical assistance and services of others 18
Preventing propagation of coal-dust explosions in mine rooms 18
Effect of oxygen content of the atmosphere on ignition temperature of coal dust 19
Coal investigations 19
Toledo, Lewis County, Wash. 19
Coos Bay, Oreg. 20
Meta-anthracite in Newport and Providence Counties, R. I. 21
Coal Creek, Gunnison County, Colo. 22
Castleman Basin, Md. 22
Deep River, N. C. 22
Eska Creek, Matanuska Valley, Alaska 22
Mining methods and practices 22
Section 4
Coal mining in Europe 23
Mining of coal for local use in Arctic regions of Alaska 23
Development of anthracite-mining machinery 24
Mining of thick-bed pillars in anthracite 24
Anthracite-flood prevention 24
Use of Diesel engines underground 25
Section 5
Electrical equipment for mines 27
Electrical hazards in coal mines 27
Mine-communication apparatus 28
Toxic mine atmospheres 28
Safety and efficiency in coal mining 29
Barricading as a life-saving measure 29
Coal-mine disasters 30
Miscellaneous causes of coal-mine injuries 30
Gaseous explosions and use of explosives 30
Permissibility tests 30
Field samples of permissible explosives 30
Consumption of permissible explosives 31
Vibrator-type multiple-shot blasting unit 31
Extinction of isobutane flames by carbon dioxide and nitrogen 31
Effects of hydrocarbons and other gases upon the explosibility of acetylene 32
Flammability of gasoline vapor - air mixtures at low pressures 33
Preparation of coal
Coal washing 33
New cleaning and dewatering process for fine-size coal 33
Section 6
New machine for thickening coal slurry 34
Washing tests of Oregon coal 35
Washing tests of Alabama coal 36
Preparation characteristics of Maryland coals 36
Preparation characteristics of certain Peruvian coals 37
Upgrading of marginal coking coals 37
Drying low-rank coals 38
Flash-drying process 38
Section 7
Drying lignite 39
Storage of coal 39
Utilization of coal for combustion 40
Fuel-engineering service 40
Boiler feed-water conditioning 43
Boiler-water research 44
Smoke abatement 45
Coal and energy in the Western States 45
Removal of ash as molten slag from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces 45
Section 8
Measurement of heat absorption in the primary furnace of a central station boiler 46
Carbonization and gasification 46
Small-scale laboratory carbonization tests 46
Survey of carbonizing properties of American coals 47
Section 9
Chilton coal 56
Lower Cedar Grove-Alma A coal 56
Upper Elkhorn coal 56
Palau No. 5 coal 57
Hill-bed coal, Cherokee County, Ala. 57
Comparative tests in BM-AGA and 500-pound slot oven 57
Swelling properties of coal during the coking process 60
Plasticity of coals 63
Section 10
Effect of oxidation on carbonizing properties of Pocahontas coal 66
Oxidizing properties of bituminous coals 66
Desulfurization of coal and coke 67
New experimental coke oven 67
Low-temperature carbonization in Japan 68
Gasification 69
Gasification of subbituminous coal and lignite 69
Gasification of lignite for preparation of high-hydrogen water gas 69
Retort corrosion during gasification 70
Coal investigations in Germany 70
Underground gasification 71
Section 11
Field-scale underground gasification experiments 73
Liquefaction 73
Production of synthesis gas 73
Laboratory-scale experimentation 73
Purification of synthesis gas 75
Pilot-plant-scale experimentation 76
Demonstration-plant construction 76
Use of oxygen in the production of synthesis gas 76
Synthesis of liquid fuels from hydrogen and carbon monoxide 76
Laboratory-scale experimentation 76
Section 12
Process development - pilot-plant operations 82
Hydrogenation of coal 83
Function of solvents and catalysts in early stages of coal hydrogenation 83
Laboratory-scale process development 84
Section 13
Pilot-plant-scale experimentation 86
Demonstration-plant construction 86
Technical reports and foreign document work 87

1 Work on manuscript completed February 18, 1949.  The Bureau of Mines will welcome reprinting of this paper, provided the following acknowledgment is used:  "Reprinted from Bureau of Mines Information Circular 7518."

2 Chief, Fuels and Explosives Division, Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C.

3 Technologist, Office of the Chief, Fuels and Explosives Division, Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C.