I.C. 7352

Annual report of Research and Technologic Work on Coal Fiscal Year 1945 - 1946

Fieldner, A.C.
Brewer, R.E.

Cover Page 93kb

Table of Contents 537kb

Section 1
Introduction 5
Acknowledgements 8
Origin, composition, and properties of coals 10
Inspection, sampling and analysis 10
Analyses of Tennessee and Georgia coals 12
Constitution, properties, and analytical methods 12
Petrologic studies of coal and rock cores from exploration projects 12
Methods of petrological study 13
Definition of "typical" coal 13
Petrology of coal-column samples from operating mines 13
Section 2
Electron-microscope studies of coal and of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts 15
Tests of miscellaneous materials 18
Determination of surface moisture in coal 19
Analyses of ash from coals of the United States 20
Calorific value of coal 20
Physical properties of coal 20
Section 3
Resins in coal 21
Coal mining 21
Experimental mine and dust explosions 21
Technical assistance and service to others 21
Studies of coal-mine roof 22
Allaying dust in coal mines 22
Application of rock dust in coal mines 23
Inflammability and explosibility of industrial dusts and powders 23
New gallery tests of dust explosions 24
Exploration of coal deposits 25
Coking coals 25
Section 4
Coal reserves in areas of critical fuel supplies 29
Exploration by the Mining Branch 31
Mining methods and practices 31
Coal strip mining 31
Hazards of strip mining 32
Mechanical mining of anthracite 32
Flood prevention in anthracite mines 33
Permissibility schedule for Diesel mine locomotives 33
Effect of pressure on exhaust gases from Diesel engines 33
Relationship of safety and efficiency in coal mining 34
Roof control 34
Haulage accidents 35
Coal-mine hoisting 35
Inspection standards for bituminous-coal and lignite mines 36
Inspection standards for anthracite mines 36
Coal-mine explosions and fires during the fiscal year 1944 36
Electrical hazards of fires and explosions 37
Fuel for flame-safety lamps 37
Procedure for investigating explosion-proof mine equipment 37
Section 5
Permissible mine equipment 38
Hazards of auxiliary fans in coal mines 38
Design of ventilation air-injectors 38
Coal-mine health hazards 39
Use of explosives and gaseous explosions 40
Increase in charge limit of permissible explosives 40
Gallery test of permissible explosives 41
Demonstrations of safety of explosives 43
Routine and special tests on explosives 43
Consumption of permissible explosives 44
Lists of permissible explosives 44
Gallery tests of sheathed explosives 44
Section 6
Effect of sheaths on poisonous gaseous products from permissible explosives 45
Sensitivity of explosives to initiation by electrostatic discharges 46
Effect of humidity on sensitivity and dispersion of black powder 47
Miniature-cartridge test for detonators 48
Determination of explosibility of potassium perchlorate and of mixture containing potassium perchlorate 49
Surface storage of explosives 51
Disposal of deteriorated explosives 51
Ignition temperatures of isobutane-air mixtures 51
Prevention of benzene-air explosions by addition of inert gases 51
Acetylene-generator explosions 52
Preparation of coal 53
Recovery of waste coal 53
Preparation of special low-ash coal 53
Section 7
Removal of extraneous material from coal 54
Precision jigging of coal 55
Characteristics of coal-cleaning processes 56
Chemistry of coal cleaning 57
Preparation tests of Toledo, Wash., lignite 57
Miscellaneous washability examinations 57
Reclaiming of beehive coke 58
Storage of coal 58
Action of coal in storage 58
Consulting service to Government establishments 59
Effect of oxidation on physical and chemical properties of coal 60
Utilization of coal 60
Combustion 60
Fuel-engineering service 60
Boiler feed-water conditioning 61
Boiler feed-water research 62
Fly-ash separator for use in homes 63
Section 8
Smoke abatement 64
National Fuel Efficiency Program 64
Properties of coal ash as related to clinkering and slagging 65
Thermal conductivity of coal-ash slags 66
External corrosion of furnace-wall tube 67
Utilization of mixtures of bituminous coal and anthracite 68
Burning solid fuels on traveling grates 69
Section 9
Burning characteristics of fuels 71
Stability and structure of burner flames 71
Carbonization and gasification 71
Small-scale laboratory tests of coking coals 71
Carbonizing properties of American coals 73
Section 10
Effect of temperature and rate of heating on carbonization yields 82
Durability of coking power of various coals 83
Plasticity of coals 84
Swelling properties of coal during the coking process 90
Section 11
Use of anthracite in coke-oven charges 93
Control of bulk densities of coke-oven charges 93
Coke for western steel production 94
Control of combustion in beehive-coke ovens 95
Low-temperature carbonization of Alaskan coals 95
Gasification of subbituminous coal and lignite 96
Section 12
Mineral wool from Rhode Island anthracite 101
Use of barley-size anthracite in gas producers 101
Carbon monoxide generator 101
Liquefaction 101
Literature reviews and abstracts 101
Inspection of synthetic liquid fuel plants in Germany 103
Reaction mechanisms in hydrogenation of coal 103