I.C. 7322

Annual Report of Research and Technologic Work on Coal, Fiscal Year 1944 - 1945

Fieldner, A.C.
Fischer, P.L.
Brewer, R.E.

Cover Page 57kb

Table of Contents 292kb

Section 1
Introduction 1
Acknowledgements 2
Origin, composition, and properties of coals 4
Inspection, sampling, and analyses 4
Fundamentals of coal sampling 5
Analyses of Kentucky coals 5
Analyses of Pennsylvania anthracitic coals 6
Constitution, analytical methods, and standardization 6
Rare and uncommon chemical elements in coal 7
Yields of primary tar and light oil from coals of various ranks and types 7
Comparison of standard test sieves 8
Application of the Rosin-Rammler law for screening coal 8
Precision of the volatile matter determination 9
Standardization of proximate analysis 9
Cooperative investigation on fusibility of coal ash 9
Coal Mining 9
Experimental mine and dust explosions 9
Studies of coal-mine roof 9
Section 2
Application of rock dust in coal mines 10
Increase in charge limit of permissible explosives 10
Explosibility of North Dakota lignite dust in air 11
Inflammability and explosibility of industrial dusts 11
Explosibility of powders from the plastics industry 12
Precision measurements of minimum static electric sparks 12
Mining methods and practices 13
Pillar extraction 13
Coal strip mining 14
Control of sulphur and ash in mine-run metallurgical coal 14
Roof control 14
Use of Diesel engines underground 15
Grounding electrical equipment in coal mines 15
Ground-resistance measurements of drill-hole casings 16
Air flow at fan-pipe lines discharge 16
Mine-fan signal alarms and power releases 17
Construction of mine ventilating doors 17
Precautions for old mine workings 17
Permissible mine equipment 17
Gas explosions and use of explosives 17
Section 3
Burning rate of fuse 18
Inflammability and ignition temperatures of acetic anhydride 18
Acetylene-generator explosions 18
Hazards from common gases and vapors 19
Coal-mine explosions and fires during the fiscal year 1943 19
Use and misuse of flame safety lamps 20
Accidents due to misuse of explosives 20
Exploration for new colas 20
Coking coals 20
Coal reserves in areas of critical fuel supplies 21
Examination and reports for the Smaller War Plants Corporation 21
Preparation of Coal 22
Improvement of coals for special purposes 22
Preparation of coal for production of synthetic liquid fuels 22
Low-ash coke for carbon electrodes 22
Marginal special-purpose coals 23
Miscellaneous preparation studies 23
Development of improved methods of coal preparation 23
Characteristics of coal and its associated impurities 24
Washability studies 24
Mechanical cleaning 25
Concentrating tables 25
Screening of coals 25
Methods for loading colas 26
Storage of coal 26
Action of coal in storage 26
Pointers on the storage of coal 27
Section 4
Preventing spontaneous combustion in stored coal 27
Storage of subbituminous coal 28
Influence of storage on caking and coking properties of coal 30
Spontaneous heating of stored coal 32
Utilization of coal 32
Combustion 32
Fuel-engineering services 32
Boiler feed-water conditioning 32
Smoke abatement 33
How to save fuel 34
National Fuel Efficiency Program 34
Section 5
Mixtures of coal and oil 35
Utilization of small-size anthracite 36
Supplementing anthracite with other fuels from home heating 37
Studies of packaged fuel 37
Automatic stoker for heating water 38
Properties of coal ash as related to clinkering and slagging 38
Thermal conductivity of coal-ash slags 39
External corrosion of furnace-wall tubes 39
Burning solid fuels on traveling grates 40
Reactivity of solid fuels by the ignition-point method 40
Stability and structure of burner flames 40
Section 6
Carbonization and gasification 41
Carbonizing properties of American coals 46
Section 7
Coke from blends of coal and its coke breeze 53
Coke from blends of coal and low-temperature coke 54
Laboratory tests of coking properties of western coals 54
Byproduct coke-oven tests of Washington coals 57
Tests of the Heliopore coal-carbonization power-plant process 61
Section 8
Effect of acids and alkalies on carbonization products 62
Influence of resins on coking properties 62
Plasticity of coals 63
Swelling properties of coal during the coking process 66
Problems of metallurgical coke for western furnaces 68
Beehive-coke production 69
Section 9
Effect of compression of coal charge on coke production 70
Producer-gas investigations 72
Liquefaction 72
Bureau of Mines research 72
Mechanism of coal-hydrogenation processes 73
Catalysts for primary liquefaction of coal by hydrogenation 75
Synthesis of liquid fuels by hydrogenation of carbon monoxide catalysts and reaction mechanism 75
Effect of pressure and dilution of synthesis gas with nitrogen 77
Section 10
Research of water-gas production 78
Development work on the Fischer-Tropsch process 78