3592.     WALKER, J. C., AND MALAKOFF, H. L.  Basic Oxygenated Chemicals From C1, C2, and C3 Paraffins and Olefins.  Petrol. Refiner, vol. 25, 1946, pp. 607-612; Oil Gas Jour., vol. 45, No. 33, 1946, pp. 59, 60, 62, 65; Chem. Abs., vol. 41, 1947, p. 1598.

        Four methods for producing oxygenated hydrocarbons are discussed briefly:  (1) Direct oxidation; (2) dehydrogenation followed by oxidation and hydration; (3) oxidation to CO and H2 followed by hydrogenation of the CO; (4) chlorination followed by hydrolysis.  With the aliphatic gases as raw materials in the direct-oxidation process, a typical oxygenated crude liquid will contain about 35% MeOH, 20% HCHO, and 5% AcH as principal products.  Partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and H2 for production of MeOH, which by further oxidation yields HCHO, has been the impetus to the development of the bakelite-type plastics industry.  The production of EtOH from C2H4 illustrates commercial production by hydration, which is displacing older established methods.  C2H4, which is expected to be available at $0.02 per lb., will reduce the cost of synthetic EtOH to $0.10 per gal.  Future oxidation processes now in the pilot-plant stage include the Fischer-Tropsch, nitration, thermal cracking plus hydration, and electric discharge plus hydration.