3497.     ---------------.  [TSUTSUMI, S.]  (R. C. Grass, Ed.)  Synthesis of Hydrocarbons.  Bureau of Mines Inf. Circ. 7594, 1951, 60 pp.

        This paper, among the documents obtained by the United States Naval Technical Mission to Japan, gives detailed data of research on the Production of synthetic liquid fuels from coal by the Fischer-Tropsch or gas-synthesis process by the Imperial Fuel Research Institute of Japan between 1932 and 1935; also contains brief reviews of research on the gas-synthesis process before 1935 in Germany, Japan, Britain, United States, and France.  Summary:  Studies were made of the effects of reaction temperature, gas velocity, and synthesis gas composition on the yield of liquid hydrocarbons, and an optimum reaction temperature and gas velocity were found to exist.  A compromise between the most desirable yield of liquid hydrocarbons and the greatest catalyst durability was established at a H2:CO ratio of 2:1.  A ratio of diatomaceous earth to the metals content of the catalyst was found to produce the best results between 1:1 and 3:4; silica gel also was found to be a fair carrier.  In preparing catalysts acetates were found to be as good a source material as nitrates.  Studies of Ni catalyst showed that by using 100 Ni:20 Mn:8 U3O8:4 ThO2 catalyst, 168.8 ml. of gasoline was obtained per cu. m. of synthesis gas.  Co-Cu catalysts and Ni-Co-Cu catalysts were investigated.  The temperature at which Co is reduced does not impair its subsequent catalytic activity in any way.  The reduction temperature of Co may be lowered from 350 to 200 by adding more than 5% Cu; to lower the reduction temperature of Ni from 450 to 250, more than 100% Co and more than 10% Cu (relative to the Ni) must be added.  Studies of catalysts containing Ag showed that, although Ag is inferior to Cu as a means of lowering the reduction temperature, it is superior to Cu as a promoter.  The mechanism of the hydrocarbon synthesis was discussed.