3340.     TAYLOR, H. S., AND NEVILLE, H. A.  Catalysis in the Interaction of Carbon With Steam and With Carbon Dioxide.  Jour. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 43, 1921, pp. 2055-2071; Chem. Abs., vol. 16, 1922, p. 522.

        Steam was passed over C at 490, 525, and 570 and the volume, and composition of the gases evolved were determined both in the presence and absence of catalysts.  The reaction is (a) C+H2O=CO2+H2.  The amount of CO in the emergent gases was hardly measurable.  This reaction takes place in 2 steps (b) C+H2O=CO+H2 and (c) CO+H2O=CO2+H2, of which (c) is the slower.  Good catalysts for (c) such as Fe oxide do not affect the velocity of (a); hence (c) reaches equilibrium under these conditions even in the absence of catalysts.  Many substances of which K2CO3 is best are powerful catalysts for (a).  The same substances are found to catalyze the reaction (d) C+CO2=2 CO.  Adsorption measurements show that these catalysts increase the adsorption of CO2 by charcoal.  The results conform to the view that a surface complex CxOy is formed and the catalysts hasten the decomposition of this complex, thus cleaning off the surface for further adsorption of CO2.