2799.     REID, J. B.  Recovery of Byproducts in High-Temperature Coking.  British Coal Utilisation Research Assoc., Monthly Bull., vol. 9, No. 8, 1945, pp. 225-234.

        Review with 46 refs.  Reformation of coke-oven gas is directed principally to producing mixtures for hydrocarbon synthesis.  The various reactions by which CH4 can be converted are:

        (1)  CH4=C+2H2-18 kcal.

        (2)  CH4+H2O (vapor) = CO+3H2-49.5 kcal.

        (3)  CH4+CO2=2CO+2H2-59.5 kcal.

        (4)  CH4+ŻO2=CO+2H2+8.5 kcal.

        All the reactions require temperatures of about 1,200░ C; at a lower temperature reaction (2) merges into the exothermic reaction:  CH4+2H2O=CO2+4H2.  5 reformation processes, based on the above reactions and directed principally to producing gas mixtures of composition CO:H2=1:2, have been developed:  The Fischer process in which the CH4-containing gas is passed with steam through coke in a water-gas generator, producing mixtures of H2 and CO in the ratio of 2:1 when suitable adjustment is made of the gas; steam ratio and the lengths of gas and blow periods; the Linde process makes use of reaction (4) by which it is claimed that 90-95% of the CH4 is converted giving a final gas mixture very near to 2H2+CO; the Kuhlmann process operates reaction (2) at hot inert surfaces, the gas and steam being the sole reactants, the resulting gas mixture being mainly H2 and CO in the ratio of 4:1, the Koppers process, which is similar to Kuhlmann, in that it makes use of thermal reformation at hot surfaces with an efficiency of 90-95% as against 75% for the Kuhlmann process; the I. G. Farbenindustrie process is catalytic and is conducted at about 800░ C. on a Ni catalyst, it depends on reactions (2) and (3) so that both CO2 and steam are added to the gas mixture, and the product is H2 and CO in a ratio of almost exactly 2:1.