2459.     NICHOLSON, E. W., MOISE, J. E., AND H ARDY, R. L.  Fluidized-Solids Pilot Plants.  Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 40, 1948, pp. 2033-2039; Chem. Abs., vol. 43, 1949, p. 1613.

Main commercial application to date of the fluidized-solids technique has been in the field of catalytic cracking of petroleum oils.  Due to its extreme flexibility and versatility it will undoubtedly be applied to an increasing number of processes.  The technique is particularly adaptable to mixed-phase (solid-gas) processes requiring the addition or removal of large amounts of heat, especially where isothermal conditions are desirable.  The fluidized solids may be catalysts, reactants, inert heat-transfer mediums, or adsorbents.  One of the most interesting new developments is in the field of hydrocarbon synthesis and commercial plants employing this fluid technique are being planned.  The steps necessary for the practical design of a pilot plant utilizing the fluidized solids technique are presented.  An apparatus which has been used for fluidization studies essential to unit design is illustrated.  The translation of data obtained in such equipment to the design of reaction vessels, circulating equipment, gas and solids inlet distributors, solids recovery, etc., is outlined.  Methods of measurement and control of temperature, pressure, solids flow rate and space velocity are discussed.