2454.     ---------------.  [NEWMAN, L. L.]  Use of Oxygen in the Production of Hydrogen or Synthesis Gas.  Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 40, 1948, pp. 559-582; Chem. Abs., vol. 42, 1948, p. 4329.

        Processes for the large-scale production of H2 and synthesis gas are basically identical, and the cost of these gases represents a major item of expense in the production of liquid fuels by the Bergius and Fischer-Tropsch methods.  To produce only 25,000 bbl. of primary liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch process 700,000,000-800,000,000 cu. ft. of synthesis gas would be required.  To produce these huge volumes of synthesis ags, high-capacity processes must be employed, and the low-priced generator fuels are required in order to make the process economical.  These can best be gasified in continuous, internally heated processes using O2.  The principal processes for this include 4 types:  Winkler, gasifying fines in a fixed fluidized bed; Koppers, gasifying pulverized coal in suspension; Lurgi, gasifying fines in a fixed bed under pressure; Thyssen-Galocsy and Leuna, gasifying lump fuel and disposing of the ash as a molten slag.  Each of these processes, their operating characteristics and economic status are discussed thoroughly.  Other less-important processes are briefly described:  Fuel Research Board vortex chamber, gasifying pulverized coal in a rotating, porous fuel bed; Wintershall-Schmalfeldt, gasifying coarse brown coal with circulating gas and steam; and Metallgesellschaft dust-gasification process, gasifying coal dust with recirculation of hot gases.  It is concluded that American requirements may be best satisfied by gasification processes using pulverized fuel in suspension.  These will permit the use of higher rank caking or noncaking coals, as well as the lower-rank subbituminous coals or lignite.

        ----------. See abs. 1468, 3743.