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1636. JONES, N. C. Activation of Halogen and Carbon Monoxide. Jour. Phys. Chem., vol. 33, 1929, pp. 1415-1427; Chem. Abs., vol. 24, 1930, p. 275.
Charcoal activates Cl and Br does not activate CO, H2, or O2 to any appreciable extent. HBr was made rapidly by passing a current of H2 containing Br over charcoal (99.3% conversion at 200°). In the COCl2 synthesis over charcoal Cl is activated, but CO is not, since neither H2CO nor MeOH could be synthesized from CO and H2 over charcoal, nor could CO2 be made from CO and O2 over charcoal. Hopcalite activates O2 not activate either CO or H2. No reaction between CO and H2 could be observed but CO, H2, and benzene are easily burned with air over hopcalite. Although benzene seldom burns until the temperature attains 490°, over hopcalite benzene vapor burns completely to CO2 and H2O at 78°. Evidence is presented that CO is a better reducing agent that H2 by a margin of 30°-50°. Neither Fe nor Ni activates CO at a point where it reacts with molecular H2. CO must be essentially electropositive in character, since it reacts much more readily with O2 and Cl than it does with H2, even when all 3 of the latter gases are activated. CO reacts only with activated monatomic H and not with molecular H2. CO does not react with electronegative H2 at a temperature lower than 500°. With CaH2 at this temperature CO gives the same reaction that is produced by CO2. This work supports the theory of Fischer and Tropsch (abs. 1018 and abs. 1021) for the mechanism of the hydrogenation of CO at ordinary pressure.
JONNARD, A. See abs. 619a.