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Return to Abstracts of Literature 1500-1749
1573. IPATIEFF, V. N. [Catalytic Reactions at High Temperatures and Pressures, VIII, IX.] Jour. Russian Phys.-Chem. Soc., vol. 36, 1904, pp. 786-813, 813-835; Ber. Deut. Chem. Gesell., vol. 37, 1904, pp. 2961-3005; Jour. Chem. Soc., vol. 2, 1904, pp. 644-645.
Investigation of the decomposition of alcohols at high temperatures and pressures in presence of Fe catalyst leads to the conclusion that increase of pressure diminishes the decomposability of alcohols, and although the course of the reaction is the same as under ordinary pressure, yet the products of the reaction, especially the gases formed, differ in composition from those obtained under atmospheric pressure. The decomposition of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols differs as regards both the products formed and the velocity which may be taken as approximately proportional to the rate of increase of pressure. Investigation of the decomposition in presence of alumina as catalyst of alcohols in closed vessels under high pressures and at definite temperatures shows that the alcohols undergo decomposition into olefins and H2O just as is the case under ordinary pressure. The temperatures at which the catalytic decompositions occur are, however, higher than under atmospheric pressure. But it is found that at temperatures lower than those at which the olefins are formed from primary alcohols, 1 mol. of H2O is given up by 2 mol of alcohol, an ether again yielding the alcohol under the influence of alumina. At higher temperatures the ether undergoes further decomposition into olefins and H2O. At still higher temperatures the olefins and also the aldehyde formed by the hydration of the ether are decomposed, yielding gaseous products partially similar to those formed during catalysis by Fe.