998.     FISCHER, F., AND PHILIPPOVICH, A.  [Production of Formates From Carbon Monoxide and Bases in Presence of Water.]  Ges. Abhandl. Kenntnis Kohle, vol. 6, 1921, pp. 366-381; Chem. Abs., vol. 18, 1924, p. 3170.

       Percent yields of formate from different bases when 100 cc of a N solution, or suspension, of the base was heated, with shaking, with CO (88.7% purity) under 20 atm. for 1 hr. at 1260 in an e autoclave, were as follows:  KOH, 97.8; LiOH, 91.7; NaOH, 96.1; Ca(OH)2, 92.3; Ba(OH)2, 90.2; Sr(OH)2, 84.8; NH3, 15.3; calcined ZnO, 1.4; precipitated Zn(OH)2, 3.5; Zn(NH3)2(OH)2, 12.2; precipitated Mg(OH)2, 4.4; Fe(OH)3, 2.4; aniline, 0.2; low-temperature tar bases (boiling 250-270), 0.5; pyradine, 1.90; piperidine, 28.30.  The reaction liquor contained Fe in all cases.  With the weak bases, the yield of formate was increased by prolonging the time of heating.  The rate of formation of HCO2NH4 at 100 was increased by the addition of HCO2Na.  From 11.09 N NH3 solution by continued addition of CO under pressure at 160-180, 31.6% of formate was obtained although partial hydrolysis apparently set in.  The yield of formate was increased by the addition of CaCO3 to neutralize the HCO2H set free.  Varying yields of formate were also obtained under similar conditions from hydrolyzable salts (Na silicate, borax, CaS, Na2CO3 and Li2CO3), Ca, Ba, and Mg carbonates, Ca(HCO3)2, Fe turnings, metallic oxides, and Na2HPO4.