757.    DUNSTANT, A. E., AND SHATWELL, H. G.  Liquid Fuels Other Than Petroleum.  Jour. Inst. Pétrol. Technol., vol. 14, 1928, pp. 64-77; Chem. Abs., vol. 22, 1928, p. 1845.

    Consideration of liquid fuels obtainable from low-temperature carbonization, coal hydrogenation, and gas reactions is shown.  Results from low-temperature carbonization have been disappointing.  Of the 16-gal. primary tar per ton of coal obtained, about 1/3, which is tar acids and bases, must be removed, unless the tar is to be used in boilers or Diesel engines.  The remaining tar contains paraffins, wax, pitch, and unsaturated hydrocarbons.  The latter resist detonation in internal-combustion engines and are thus especially useful in blending.  In hydrogenation, the technical validity of the Bergius process is established, 1 ton of coal producing 140 gal. of liquid product resembling low-temperature primary coal tars.  Recovery of H2 is important economically, and methods for doing this are mentioned.  Gas reactions afford many possibilities and variations.  Catalytic reduction of CO at high pressures yields oxygenated compounds.  At atmospheric pressure and high temperature, CH4 is the sole product.  Synthetic MeOH can be obtained with almost theoretical yield by using ZnO at 400° and 150 atm.  For this purpose other catalysts mentioned are metals and metallic oxides or their mixtures, salts, oxides of Cu, Ag, Zn, Pb, or Cd, chromates, vanadates, molybdates, and tungstates, but Fe, Ni, and Co must be rigorously excluded.  For products other than MeOH, iron metals and alkalies are essential.  Synthol, a mixture of higher alcohols, fatty acids, aldehydes, ketones and esters, but no hydrocarbons, is obtained by passing water gas over Fe borings impregnated with a strong base at 410° and 50 atm.  Fischer and Tropsch have obtained gaseous liquid and solid homologs of CH4 by low-temperature reduction of CO.  Gives references to literature and to patents.

     DUNVILLE, T. C.  See abs. 3549.