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Stability Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Fuels from Alternative Sources - March 1979

Dennis W. Brinkman
M. L. Whisman
John N. Bowden

Bartlesville Energy Technology Center

In this pdf format, this document has 43 pages and is 1.61MB

Table of Contents

Abstract 1
Introduction 2
Description of test fuels 2
G-C1 - SASOL gasoline 2
G-T1 - Tar sands naphtha 3
G-P1 - Commercial leaded, regular grade gasoline 3
G-P2 - Commercial unleaded gasoline 3
J5-P1 - Petroleum JP-5 3
J5-$1 - JP-5 produced from shale oil 3
J5-T1 - JP-5 derived from Athabasca tar sands 4
J5-CI - JP-5 refined from coal syncrude produced by the COED process 4
JA-S2 - Jet A fuel produced from Paraho shale oil 4
JA-S3 - Jet A fuel produced from Paraho shale oil 4
Fuel properties 4
43.3 C Storage stability tests 7
Acid numbers and viscosities 7
Accelerated storage test 12
Thermal oxidation stability evaluation 12
Analyses of fuels following storage tests 12
Analyses of gum residues developed during 43.3 C (110 F) 32 week storage tests 15
Analyses of gum from SASOL gasoline before storage 26
Conclusions 26
Acknowledgements 27
References 27
Appendix A - Analytical Methods 28
Storage stability test at 43.3C (110 F) 28
Cleaning the storage bottles 28
Aging at 43.3C (110 F) 28
Aerating storage samples 28
Analyzing storage samples 30
Materials and apparatus 30
Determining soluble gum 30
Determining insoluble gum 32
Determining precipitate 32
Accelerated storage test at 93.3 C (200 F) 32
Cleaning beverage bottles 32
Aging at 93.3 C 33
Analyzing aged fuel 33
Materials and apparatus 33
Determining soluble gum 34
Determining insoluble gum 34
Determining inorganic residue 34
Method for determining oxygen in usage of test bottles 34
Materials and apparatus 35
Procedure 35
Calculations 35
Calculation of predicted 32 week gum levels 35
 
ILLUSTRATIONS
Infrared spectra of gum residue from SASOL gasoline 17
Infrared spectra of gum residue from tar sands naphtha 18
Infrared spectra of gum residue from petroleum-based gasoline, leaded 19
Infrared spectra of gum residue from petroleum-based gasoline, unleaded 20
Infrared spectra of gum residue from petroleum-based gasoline, JP-5 21
Infrared spectra of gum residue from shale oil JP-5 22
Infrared spectra of gum residue from tar sands-based kerosene fraction 23
Infrared spectra of gum residue from coal-derived JP-5 24
Infrared spectra of gum residue from high nitrogen, shale all Jet A 25
Filtering assembly 31
 
TABLES
1. Properties of gasolines 5
2. Gas chromatography analyses of gasolines 6
3. Physical and chemical properties of JP-5 fuels 8
4. Physical and chemical properties of Jet A fuels 9
5. Storage stability test results at 43.3 C (110 F) 10
6. Effect of 43.3 C (110 F) storage stability tests on acid number and viscosities 11
7. Accelerated storage test - 16 hours at 93.3 C (200 F)  13
8. JFTOT evaluations by ASTM D 3421 method 14
9. X-ray analysis of gum deposits after 32 weeks storage 16
10. Analytical methods used in this program 29