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See also - Kinetics of Mn-Based Sorbents for Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization. Final Technical Report. 09/15/1994 09/15/1997

Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization With Manganese-Based Sorbents.
Final Report. September 1992 - December 1994 - 1994

Hepworth, M. T.
Slimane, R. Ben

University of Minnesota

Table of Contents 24kb

Section 1
1483kb
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii

I.

Introduction 1
 

1.1

Introduction 1

1.2

References 4

II.

Literature Review

5
 

2.1

Introduction 5

2.2

Emerging Technologies for Power Generation 8
  2.2.1 Introduction 8
2.2.2 Advantages of Hot Gas Desulfurization 9
2.2.3 Coal Gasifiers for IGCC Application 12
2.2.4 Particulate Removal System 12
2.2.5 Hot Gas Desulfurization 12

2.3

Review of Hot Gas Desulfurization Sorbents 16
  2.3.1 Introduction 16
2.3.2 Manganese-based Systems 17

2.4

References 19
Section 2
1202kb

III.

Thermodynamic Comparison of Several Sorbent Systems for Hot Coal- Derived Fuel-Gas Desulfurization 21
  Acknowledgement 21
Abstract 22

3.1

Introduction 23

3.2

Analytical Approach 23

3.3

Complex Chemical Systems 25

3.4

Evaluation of Degree of Desulfurization for Several Metal Sorbent Systems 26

3.5

Graphical Procedure 27

3.6

Example 1 28

3.7

Example 2 29

3.8

Summary 29

3.9

References 29
Section 3
1425kb

IV.

Desulfurization of Hot Coal-Derived Fuel Gases with Manganese-Based Regenerable Sorbents. 1. Loading (Sulfidation) Tests

51
 

Acknowledgement

51

Abstract

52

4.1

Introduction 53

4.2

Thermodynamic Considerations 54

4.3

Experimental Investigations and Results 55
  4.3.1 Sorbent Pellet Preparation 55
4.3.2 Pellet Reactivity via Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) 59

4.4

Kinetic Considerations 61

4.5

Mn-Based Sorbents vs Zn-Based Sorbents 63

4.6

Summary and Conclusions 65

4.7

References 66
Section 4
1237kb

V.

Desulfurization of Hot Coal-Derived Fuel Gases with Manganese-Based Regenerable Sorbents. 2. Regeneration and Multicycle Tests

81
 

Acknowledgements

81

Abstract

82

5.1

Introduction 83

5.2

Thermodynamic Considerations 85

5.3

Experimental Investigations and Results 87
  5.3.1 Regeneration Tests 88
5.3.2 Multicycle Tests 89
5.3.3 Discussion 90

5.4

Kinetic Considerations 91

5.5

Summary and Conclusions 92

5.6

References 93
Section 5
1134kb

VI.

Desulfurization of Hot Coal-Derived Fuel Gases with Manganese-Based Regenerable Sorbents. 3. Fixed-Bed Testing

105
 

Acknowledgements

105

Abstract

106

6.1

Introduction 107

6.2

Experimental Investigations and Results 109
  6.2.1 Introduction 109
6.2.2 Fixed-Bed System Description and Testing Procedures 110
6.2.3 Results and Discussion 112

6.3

Re-assessment of Reaction Equilibria in the Solid Mn-S-O System 113

6.4

References 115
Section 6
254kb

VII.

Summary and Suggestions for Future Work

126
 

7.1

Summary 126

7.2

Suggestions for Future Work 127
Appendices
1888kb
VIII.  Appendix A:  Raw Materials Used and Method of Pellet Manufacture 130
 

8.1

Introduction 131

8.2

Pellet Preparation Procedure 132

8.3

Discussion 133

8.4

Raw Materials Used and Their Assays 134
IX.  Appendix B:  Derivation of Relevant Kinetic Expressions 136
 

9.1

Definition of Symbols Used and Their Units 137

9.2

Introduction 137

9.3

Application of the Shrinking-Core Model for Spherical Pellets During Sulfidation 138
  9.3.1 Diffusion through gas film controls 139
9.3.2 Diffusion through product layer controls 141
9.3.3 Chemical (surface) reaction controls 143

9.4

Application of the Shrinking-Core Model for Spherical Pellets During Regeneration 144
X.  Appendix C:  Petrographic Study of Mn Oxide and Sulfide Pellets 148
 

Acknowledgements

148

10.1

Introduction 149

10.2

Pellet Macrophotography and Macrocharacteristics 149

10.3

Pellet Preparation 149

10.4

Pellet Photomicrography and Microcharacteristics 149

10.5

X-ray Diffraction of Whole Pellets 150

10.6

Interpretation of Results 150
  10.6.1 Cracks 151
10.6.2 Cavities 151
10.6.3 Particle Size 151
10.6.4 Phases 151

10.7

X-ray Diffraction of Whole Pellets 152

10.8

Conclusions 152