I.C. 7370

Report on the Investigation by Fuels and Lubricants Teams at the I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Leuna Works, Meresburg, Germany - 1946

Holroyd, R.1

Cover Page 91kb

Table of Contents 851kb

Page
Section 1
1201kb
Forward i
Introduction, by R. Holroyd ii
Personnel of visiting teams iii
I. Gas production, by G.U. Hopton, R. J. Morley, L. L. Newman, and W. W. Odell 1
Gas Production 1
Water-gas generators 1
Winkler generators 2
Slagging producers ("Abstichgeneratoren") 5
Pattenhausen generator 6
Oxygen plant 6
Section 2
1096kb
Documents in connection with gas production 7
H2S removal 7
Alkacid process 7
Active carbon process 8
Organic sulphur 9
CO conversion 9
II. Ammonia synthesis, by R. J. Morley and W. W. Odell 10
General 10
Staff interviewed 10
Compression 10
CO2 removal 11
CO removal 12
Final NH3 make-up gas purification 12
NH3 synthesis 12
Circulator 13
Catalyst 13
Converters 14
Section 3
1262kb
III. Methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, by R. J. Morley 15
Methanol 15
Higher alcohols 15
IV. Hydrogenation, by R. Holroyd and W. F. Faragher 18
A. General 18
B. Brown-coal hydrogenation 18
(i) Outline of present process 18
(ii) Consideration of process improvements made since the war 20
Section 4
1100kb
(iii) Details of plant equipment 22
C. Brown-coal tar hydrogenation 24
D. Vapour-phase hydrogenation of middle oils 25
(i) process conditions and yields 25
(ii) Details of plant 27
Section 5
1833kb
E. Vapour-phase splitting hydrogenation at 700 atmospheres pressure 28
F. Hydrogenation costs 29
Section 6
986kb
V. D. H. D. (Dehydrierung - Hoch - Druck) process 38
(i) Description of process and Leuna operating results 38
(ii) Costs 40
Section 7
920kb
VI. Hydroforming process, by E. Cotton and V. Haensel 43
VII. Arobin process, by D. A. Howes, J. G. Allen, and H. Schindler 46
Charge to Arobin plant 46
Operating conditions 46
Yield and quality of the product 47
Preparation of the Arobin catalyst 47
Section 8
1227kb
VIII. Catalytic cracking, by E. Cotton and V. Haensel 49
Introduction 49
Reaction conditions 49
Catalyst 49
Products 50
Catalyst life 51
Hydrogenation of product 51
Conclusions 51
IX. Dehydrogenation of butane - alkylation, by D. A. Howes, J. G. Allen, and H. Schindler 52
Introduction 52
Summary of operations 52
Dehydrogenation 52
Section 9
1051kb
Catalyst regeneration 54
Catalyst manufacture 54
Preparation of alkylation feed stock 55
Alkylation 55
Alkylate quality 56
Alkylate production in Germany 56
Economics of Leuna operation 57
Section 10
1030kb
X. Isomerization of normal butane, by E. Cotton and V. Haensel 59
XI. Synthetic lubricating-oil manufacture - Leuna, by D. A. Howes, J. G. Allen, H. Schindler, C. C. Chaffee, and R. J. Ozol 60
Summary of process 60
Process details 60
(1) Thermal cracking of ethane 60
(2) Acetylene removal 61
(3) Oil absorption 61
(4) Activated-charcoal absorption 61
(5) Alkazid washer 61
(6) Caustic washer 61
(7) Linde low-temperature fractionation 62
(8) Polymerization of ethylene to lubricating oil 62
(9) Catalyst separation and disposal 63
Section 11
1360kb
(10) Oil fractionation 64
Operating requirements 64
Tests on products 65
Production data 66
Notes on catalysts and reaction conditions 67
(1) Acetylene removal catalyst 67
(2) Ethylene purity required 67
(3) Polymerization catalyst 68
Theory of lubrication 68
Sources of olefines 71
Hydrocarbon synthesis 71
Lubricating-oil additives and special products 72
I. Additives 72
Section 12
1348kb
II. Special lubricants 75
Conclusions and recommendation 77
XII. Synthetic lubrication oil - Schkopau, by P. K. Kuhne 78
Introduction 78
Description of the process 78
Miscellaneous 80
Conclusions 80
XIIA. Synthetic lubricating-oil manufacture at Stettin-Plitz, by D. A. Howes, J. G. Allen, and H. Schindler 81
Source of information 81
Summary 81
Description of process 81
Wax cracking 81
Polymerization 82
Refining of polymerized oil 82
Tests on products 83
Yields 83
XIII. Aviation fuel manufacture and engine testing, by D. A. Howes, J. G. Allen, and H. Schindler 84
Introduction 84
Octane number determination and specification 84
Section 13
1235kb
B. M. W. 3-litre single-cylinder aero engine 85
Aviation gasoline 85
Nomenclature of aviation fuels 86
XIV. OXO process, by v. Haensel and J. P. Jones 87
Introduction 87
Chemistry of the OXO process 87
Process conditions 88
Leuna operation 88
Catalyst preparation 91
Section 14
1326kb
OXO processing of cracked middle oil 92
XV. Synol process, by V. Haensel, J. P. Jones, and W. A. Horne 93
Synthesis gas 93
Scale of operations 93
Process conditions 93
Yields 94
Design of reactors 95
Catalyst preparation 95
Work-up of crude Synol product 96
Section 15
1215kb
XVI. Mersol process, by A. J. V. Underwood 98
Scale of operation 98
Process conditions 98
XVII. Methylamine, by R. J. Morley 100
Isobutylamine manufacture 100
Schiff's base 101
XVIII. Manufacture of carboxylic acids, by D. A. Howes, J. G. Allen, and H. Schindler 102
XIX. Polymerization of C6 and C7 olefines, by D. A. Howes, J. G. Allen, and H. Schindler 103
XX. Fertilizers and nitric acid, by R. J. Morley 104
Ammonium sulphate 104
Nitric acid 105
Concentrated nitric acid 105
Ammonium nitrate 105
Calcium nitrate (Kalksalpeter) 106
Phosphate fertilizers 106
Leuna saltpeter (ammonium sulphate and nitrate) 106
Ammonium chloride fertilizers 106
Section 16
1106kb
XXI. Synthesis of toluene from benzene and methanol, by R. Holroyd and C. C. Chaffee 107
Introduction 107
General process data 107
Plant operation 108
Development work on related processes 109
XXII. Catalyst preparation, by W. A. Horne and W. F. Faragher 110
Catalyst 616 110
Catalyst 1132 111
Catalyst 1750 111
Catalyst 2493 111
Catalyst 2730 112
Catalyst 3076 112
Catalyst 3390 112
Catalyst 3510 113
Catalyst 4577 113
Catalyst 4788 114
Catalyst 4821 114
Catalyst 5058 114
Catalyst 5436 115
Catalyst 5623 115
Section 17
1588kb
Catalyst 5633 116
Catalyst 5780 116
Catalyst 6067 116
Catalyst 6069 117
Catalyst 6448 117
Catalyst 6523 117
Catalyst 6853 117
Catalyst 7187 118
Catalyst 10927 118
Ammonia-catalyst (no number) 118
XXIII. Metallurgy, by J. F. Ellis 119
I. G. experience with hydrogen-resistant steels 119
Enamelling of preheater bends 120
Chromium-plated injector rams 120
Material for butane dehydrogenation reactor tubes 121
Material for catalytic cracking regenerators 121
XXIV. Bleohhammer, by r. Holroyd and W. F. Faragher 122
Introduction 122
Details of coal hydrogenation to give excess heavy oil 124
Phenol extraction 126
Treatment of hydrocarbon bases 127
Costs 127
Section 18
1897kb
XXV. Brx, by R. Holroyd and W. F. Faragher 128
Introduction 128
General outline of the Brx factory 128
(a) Brown-coal carbonization 128
(b) Hydrogen production 128
(c) Hydrogenation plant 129
(d) Phenol extractions 129
Operation of the hydrogenation units 129
Costs 130
Present condition of Brx plant 130
Underground hydrogenation plant 130
XXVI. German oil production, by R. Holroyd 133
XXVII. Use of bottled propane and butane for road vehicles, by R. Holroyd and J. F. Ellis 135

1 British Ministry of Fuel and Power.