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Bulletin 488

The Isosynthesis - 1950

Pichler, Helmut
Ziesecke, Karl-Heinz

Table of Contents 357kb

Page
Section 1
758kb
Preface 1
Introduction 1
Experimental part 3
Apparatus 3
Preliminary tests 3
Experiments with various one-component catalysts 5
Thoria one-component catalyst 6
Effect of synthesis temperature 6
Effect of synthesis pressure 6
Section 2
944kb
Effect of pressure versus contact time upon conversion 8
Effect of two-stage and recycling operations 8
Effect of promoters and carrier on the activity of thorium oxide 9
Effect of alimina 9
Coprecipitated ThO2-Al2O3 10
Separate ThO2 and Al2O3 layers in the same reactor 10
ThO2-Al2O3 precipitated separately and mixed in wet state 11
ThO2-Al2O3 - kieselguhr 11
Summary of ThO2-Al2O3 experiments 11
Effect of alkali 11
On ThO2 catalyst 11
On ThO2-Al2O3 catalyst 13
Effect of zinc oxide 13
On ThO2 catalyst 13
On Al2O3 13
Section 3
815kb
On ThO2-Al2O3 15
Effect of chromium oxide 15
On ThO2 15
On Al2O3 15
Effect of other promoters on ThO2 15
Phosphoric acid 15
Iron 16
Copper 16
Conversion of dimethylether 17
Analytical part 18
Description of techniques 18
Gas analysis 18
Determination of dimethylether 18
Study of gasol fraction 19
Distillation of liquid hydrocarbons 19
Determination of unsaturated liquid hydrocarbons 20
Determination of aromatic compounds 20
Determination of acids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and phenols 20
Section 4
868kb
Determination of the gasoline knock rating 21
Investigation of lubricant properties of the high-boiling oil fractions 21
Composition of liquid products from a life test over ThO2-Al2O3 catalyst at 300 atmospheres 21
Description of durability experiment 21
Analysis of the gasol fraction 23
Investigation of liquid hydrocarbon fraction obtained at synthesis temperature of 425 C 23
Section 5
713kb
Analysis of liquid hydrocarbon fraction obtained at synthesis temperature of 375 C 28
Composition of liquid products obtained under various synthesis conditions 30
ThO2 catalyst, 150 atmospheres, 375 C 30
ThO2 catalyst 30 atmospheres, 475 C 30
Composition of alcohol fraction 30
Antiknock rating of the hydrocarbons 31
Section 6
1091kb
Nature of the isosynthesis reaction 33
Comparison with other catalytic procedures for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide 33
Essential features of the isosynthesis 33
The catalyst 33
Synthesis conditions 33
Products 33
Possible mechanisms of the reaction 34
Isomerization of primary n-paraffins 34
Intermediate alcohol production 35
Oxygenated byproducts of the isosynthesis 35
Effect of the catalyst 35
Intermediate dimethylether production 36
Isomerization equilibria of olefins obtained by dehydration of alcohols 37
Polymerization, alkylation, and cyclization reaction in the production of higher hydrocarbons (C5+) 38